BUSINESS AND OVERVIEW
We are a global provider of hospitality services and travel products and operate
our business in the following two segments:
•Vacation Ownership - develops, markets and sells vacation ownership interests ("VOIs") to individual consumers, provides consumer financing in connection with the sale of VOIs, and provides property management services at resorts.
•Travel and Membership – operates a variety of travel businesses, including
three vacation exchange brands, a home exchange network, travel technology
platforms, travel memberships, and direct-to-consumer rentals.
Travel + Leisure Brand Acquisition
January 5, 2021, Wyndham Destinations, Inc.acquired the Travel + Leisure brand and related assets from Meredith Corporation ("Meredith") for $100 million, of which $55 millionwas paid during 2021. The remaining payments are to be completed by June 2024. This acquisition included Travel + Leisure branded travel clubs and members. We acquired the Travel + Leisure brand to accelerate our strategic plan to broaden our reach with the launch of new travel services, expand our membership travel business, and amplify the global visibility of our leisure travel products. Meredith will continue to operate and monetize Travel + Leisure branded multi-platform media assets across multiple channels under a 30-year royalty-free, renewable licensing relationship. In connection with this acquisition, on February 17, 2021, Wyndham Destinations, Inc.was renamed Travel + Leisure Co.and continues to trade on the New York Stock Exchangeunder the new ticker symbol TNL. In connection with the Travel + Leisure brand acquisition we updated the names and composition of our reportable segments to better align with how they are managed. We created the Travel + Leisure Groupwhich falls under the Travel and Membership segment along with the Panorama business line. With the formation of the Travel + Leisure Group, we decided that the operations of our Extra Holidays business, which focuses on direct-to-consumer bookings, better aligns with the operations of this new business line and therefore transitioned the management of our Extra Holidays business to the Travel and Membership segment. As such, we reclassified the results of our Extra Holidays business, which were previously reported within the Vacation Ownership segment, into the Travel and Membership segment.
Impact of COVID-19 on Our Business
The results of operations for the years ended
December 31, 2021and 2020 include impacts related to the novel coronavirus global pandemic ("COVID-19"), which have been significantly negative for the travel industry, our company, our customers, and our employees. Our response to COVID-19 initially focused on the health and safety of our owners, members, guests, and employees when we closed the majority of our resorts and sales centers in early 2020. As a result, we significantly reduced our workforce and furloughed thousands of employees at that time. As of December 31, 2021, we had reopened all of the resorts and sales offices in North Americathat we expect to reopen. The remaining closed resorts and sales offices that we intend to reopen are located in the South Pacificand are expected to reopen in 2022, contingent upon the lifting of government imposed travel restrictions. As a result of reopening substantially all of our resorts, the majority of furloughed employees have returned to work. Given the significant impacts of COVID-19 on our business, our revenues have been negatively impacted. While revenues are continuing to recover, not all product and service lines have yet reached pre-pandemic levels, and we believe that COVID-19 will continue to have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations in the near term. Despite some volatility with recent spikes in COVID-19 case-counts as a result of variants, in general, we are seeing a broad increase in consumer confidence as well as a reduction in travel restrictions. These factors combined with progress in the roll-out of vaccinations have continued to help travel sentiment improve. Assuming travel sentiment continues to improve, we expect increases in both VOI sales and new owner mix in 2022. We also expect an increase in the percentage of financed VOI sales, which would impact our allowance for loan losses. During the year ended December 31, 2021, we reversed $61 millionof COVID-19 charges, compared to $385 millionof charges incurred in 2020. The $61 millionof net reversals during 2021 included the release of $91 millionof the COVID-19 related allowance for loan losses. See Note 26-COVID-19 Related Items to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional details on the impact COVID-19 had on our business.
Included in the
recorded during the first quarter as a result of our evaluation of the impact of
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on our owners' ability to repay their vacation ownership contract receivables ("VOCRs"). As we began to see an improvement in net new defaults and lower than expected unemployment rates, we reduced this provision by
$20 millionin the fourth quarter of 2020. Since the time the COVID-19 related allowance was established in March 2020, we have reversed $111 millionof the initial $225 millionprovision. After considering write-offs and the allowance for remaining likely defaults associated with loans that were granted payment deferrals, we have no COVID-19 related allowances as of December 31, 2021. As a precautionary measure to enhance liquidity during the pandemic, in the first quarter of 2020, we drew down our $1.0 billionrevolving credit facility and suspended share repurchase activity. In the third quarter of 2020, we amended the credit agreement governing our revolving credit facility and term loan B ("First Amendment"), which provided financial covenant flexibility during the relief period that commenced on July 15, 2020and was scheduled to end on April 1, 2022(the "Relief Period"). During the Relief Period we were prohibited from using cash for share repurchases but maintained our ability to pay dividends and make investments in our business. During 2021 we repaid the $1.0 billionrevolving credit facility, the $250 million5.625% secured notes due March 2021, and the $650 million4.25% secured notes due March 2022. On October 22, 2021, we renewed the credit agreement governing our revolving credit facility and term loan B ("Second Amendment"), which terminated the Relief Period, established new thresholds for our financial covenant ratios and eliminated the restrictions regarding share repurchases, dividends, and acquisitions established by the First Amendment. In connection with entering the Second Amendment, we resumed share repurchases during the fourth quarter of 2021. As part of our reopening strategy, we focused on higher margin owner business by leveraging our owner upgrade pipeline. Prior to the pandemic, just under 40% of our sales transactions were to lower margin new owners as compared to 28% during 2021. We also raised our credit standards and directed our marketing efforts towards higher Fair Isaac Corporation ("FICO") scores, which we expect will continue to strengthen our receivables portfolio going forward. Additionally, we closed certain unprofitable marketing and sales locations and shifted marketing channels and resources to our most productive channels. All of these changes were designed to result in higher volume per guest ("VPG"), which is a measure of sales efficiency and is strongly correlated to profitability. For certain of the events, uncertainties, trends, and risks associated with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our future results and financial condition, see "Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic" included in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report filed on Form 10-K.
Alliance Reservations Network Acquisition
August 7, 2019, we acquired Alliance Reservations Network("ARN") for $102 million( $97 millionnet of cash acquired). ARN provides private-label travel booking technology solutions. This acquisition was undertaken for the purpose of accelerating growth at Travel and Membership by increasing the offerings available to its members and affiliates. See Note 5-Acquisitions to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional details. ARN is reported within the Travel and Membership segment.
North American Vacation Rentals Business Sale
During 2019 we closed on the sale of our North American vacation rentals
classified as a discontinued operation; therefore, the results of operations are
reflected within continuing operations on the Consolidated Statements of
Income/(Loss) through the date of sale.
We develop, market, and sell VOIs to individual consumers, provide consumer financing in connection with the sale of VOIs, and provide property management services at resorts. Our sales of VOIs are either cash sales or developer-financed sales. Developer-financed sales are typically collateralized by the underlying VOI. Revenue is recognized on VOI sales upon transfer of control, which is defined as the point in time when a binding sales contract has been executed, the financing contract has been executed for the remaining transaction price, the statutory rescission period has expired, and the transaction price has been deemed to be collectible. 36
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For developer-financed sales, we reduce the VOI sales transaction price by an estimate of uncollectible consideration at the time of the sale. Our estimates of uncollectible amounts are based largely on the results of our static pool analysis which relies on historical payment data by customer class. In connection with entering into a VOI sale, we may provide our customers with certain non-cash incentives, such as credits for future stays at our resorts. For those VOI sales, we bifurcate the sale and allocate the sales price between the VOI sale and the non-cash incentive. Non-cash incentives generally have expiration periods of 18 months or less and are recognized at a point in time upon transfer of control. We provide day-to-day property management services including oversight of housekeeping services, maintenance, and certain accounting and administrative services for property owners' associations and clubs. These services may also include reservation and resort renovation activities. Such agreements are generally for terms of one year or less, and are renewed automatically on an annual basis. Our management agreements contain cancellation clauses, which allow for either party to cancel the agreement, by either a majority board vote or a majority vote of non-developer interests. We receive fees for such property management services which are collected monthly in advance and are based upon total costs to operate such resorts (or as services are provided in the case of resort renovation activities). Fees for property management services typically approximate 10% of budgeted operating expenses. We are entitled to consideration for reimbursement of costs incurred on behalf of the property owners' association in providing the management services ("reimbursable revenue"). These reimbursable costs principally relate to the payroll costs for management of the associations, club and resort properties where we are the employer and are reflected as a component of Operating expenses on the Consolidated Statements of Income/(Loss). We reduce our management fees for amounts paid to the property owners' association that reflect maintenance fees for VOIs for which we retain ownership, as we have concluded that such payments are consideration payable to a customer. Property management fee revenues are recognized when the services are performed and are recorded as a component of Service and membership fees on the Consolidated Statements of Income/(Loss). Property management revenues, which are comprised of management fee revenue and reimbursable revenue, for the years ended
December 31, were (in millions) (a): 2021 2020 2019 Management fee revenue $ 358 $ 331 $ 365Reimbursable revenues 313 252 307 Property management revenues $ 671 $ 583 $ 672
(a)Reflects the impact of reclassifying the Extra Holidays business line from
the Vacation Ownership segment to Travel and Membership.
One of the associations that we manage paid our Travel and Membership segment
$30 millionfor exchange services during 2021, $27 millionduring 2020, and $29 millionduring 2019. Within our Vacation Ownership segment, we measure operating performance using the following key operating statistics: (i) gross VOI sales including Fee-for-Service sales before the effect of loan loss provisions, (ii) tours, which represents the number of tours taken by guests in our efforts to sell VOIs, and (iii) VPG, which represents revenue per guest and is calculated by dividing the gross VOI sales (excluding tele-sales upgrades, which are non-tour upgrade sales) by the number of tours.
Travel and Membership
Travel and Membership derives a majority of revenues from membership dues and fees for facilitating members' trading of their intervals. Revenues from membership dues represent the fees paid by members or affiliated clubs on their behalf. We recognize revenues from membership dues paid by the member on a straight-line basis over the membership period as the performance obligations are fulfilled through delivery of publications, if applicable, and by providing access to travel-related products and services. Estimated net contract consideration payable by affiliated clubs for memberships is recognized as revenue over the term of the contract with the affiliated club in proportion to the estimated average monthly member count. Such estimates are adjusted periodically for changes in the actual and forecasted member activity. For additional fees, members have the right to exchange their intervals for intervals at other properties affiliated with our vacation exchange networks and, for certain members, for other leisure-related services and products. We also derive revenue from facilitating bookings of travel accommodations for both members and non-members. Revenue is recognized when these transactions have been confirmed, net of expected cancellations; except in certain transactions where we have a performance obligation that is not satisfied until the time of stay. 37
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As a provider of vacation exchange services, we enter into affiliation agreements with developers of vacation ownership properties to allow owners of VOIs to trade their intervals for intervals at other properties affiliated with our vacation exchange network and, for some members, for other leisure-related services and products. Our vacation exchange business also derives revenues from programs with affiliated resorts, club servicing, and loyalty programs; and additional exchange-related products that provide members with the ability to protect trading power or points, extend the life of deposits, and combine two or more deposits for the opportunity to exchange into intervals with higher trading power. Other vacation exchange-related product fees are deferred and recognized as revenue upon the occurrence of a future exchange, event, or other related transaction. We earn revenue from our RCI Elite Rewards co-branded credit card program, which is primarily generated by cardholder spending and the enrollment of new cardholders. The advance payments received under the program are recognized as a contract liability until our performance obligations have been satisfied. The primary performance obligation for the program relates to brand performance services. Total contract consideration is estimated and recognized on a straight-line basis over the contract term. Prior to the sale of our vacation rental businesses, our vacation rental brands derived revenue from fees associated with the rental of vacation properties we managed and marketed on behalf of independent owners. We remitted the rental fee received from the renter to the independent owner, net of our agreed-upon fee. The related revenue from such fees, net of expected refunds, was recognized over the renter's stay. Our vacation rental brands also derived revenues from additional services delivered to independent owners, vacation rental guests, and property owners' associations which were generally recognized when the service was delivered. Within our Travel and Membership segment, we measure operating performance using the following key operating statistics: (i) average number of exchange members, which represents paid members in our vacation exchange programs who are considered to be in good standings, (ii) transactions, which represents the number of vacation bookings recognized as revenue during the period, net of cancellations, provided in two categories; Exchange, which is primarily RCI, and non-Exchange, and (iii) revenue per transaction, which represents transactional revenue divided by transactions, provided in two categories; Exchange, which is primarily RCI, and non-Exchange.
We record property management services revenues and RCI Elite Rewards revenues for our Vacation Ownership and Travel and Membership segments in accordance with the guidance for reporting revenues gross as a principal versus net as an agent, which requires that these revenues be recorded on a gross basis. Discussed below are our consolidated results of operations and the results of operations for each of our reportable segments. These reportable segments represent our operating segments for which discrete financial information is available and which are utilized on a regular basis by our chief operating decision maker to assess performance and to allocate resources. In identifying the reportable segments, we also consider the nature of services provided by our operating segments. Management uses net revenues and Adjusted EBITDA to assess the performance of the reportable segments. We define Adjusted EBITDA as Net income/(loss) from continuing operations before Depreciation and amortization, Interest expense (excluding Consumer financing interest), early extinguishment of debt, Interest income (excluding Consumer financing revenues) and income taxes. Adjusted EBITDA also excludes stock-based compensation costs, separation and restructuring costs, legacy items, transaction costs for acquisitions and divestitures, impairments, gains and losses on sale/disposition of business, and items that meet the conditions of unusual and/or infrequent. Legacy items include the resolution of and adjustments to certain contingent assets and liabilities related to acquisitions of continuing businesses and dispositions, including the separation of
Wyndham Hotels, Inc.(" Wyndham Hotels") and Cendant, and the sale of the vacation rentals businesses. We believe that Adjusted EBITDA is a useful measure of performance for our segments which, when considered with generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S.("GAAP") measures, gives a more complete understanding of our operating performance. Our presentation of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly-titled measures used by other companies. 38
Table of Contents OPERATING STATISTICS
The table below presents our operating statistics for the years ended
revenues and therefore provide an enhanced understanding of our businesses.
Refer to the Results of Operations section for a discussion on how these
operating statistics affected our business for the periods presented.
2021 2020 % Change (h) Vacation Ownership Gross VOI sales (in millions) (a) (i)
$ 1,491 $ 96754.1 Tours (in 000s) (b) 451 333 35.7 Volume Per Guest ("VPG") (c) $ 3,143 $ 2,48626.4 Travel and Membership (d) Transactions (in 000s) (e) Exchange 1,182 762 55.0 Non-exchange 778 458 69.8 Total transactions 1,960 1,220 60.6 Revenue per transaction(f) Exchange $ 322 $ 324(0.6) Non-exchange $ 205 $ 14838.0 Total revenue per transaction $ 275 $ 2586.8 Average number of exchange members (in 000s) (g) 3,721 3,749 (0.7) (a)Represents total sales of VOIs, including sales under the Fee-for-Service program before the effect of loan loss provisions. We believe that Gross VOI sales provide an enhanced understanding of the performance of our vacation ownership business because it directly measures the sales volume of this business during a given reporting period. (b)Represents the number of tours taken by guests in our efforts to sell VOIs. (c)VPG is calculated by dividing Gross VOI sales (excluding tele-sales upgrades, which are non-tour upgrade sales) by the number of tours. We believe that VPG provides an enhanced understanding of the performance of our vacation ownership business because it directly measures the efficiency of this business' tour selling efforts during a given reporting period. (d)Includes the impact from acquisitions from the acquisition dates forward (e)Represents the number of vacation bookings recognized as revenue during the period, net of cancellations. (f)Represents transactional revenue divided by transactions. (g)Represents paid members in our vacation exchange programs who are considered to be in good standing. (h)Percentage of change may not calculate due to rounding. (i)The following table provides a reconciliation of Vacation ownership interest sales, net to Gross VOI sales for the years ended December 31, (in millions): 2021 2020
Vacation ownership interest sales, net
Loan loss provision
129 415 Gross VOI sales, net of Fee-for-Service sales 1,305 920 Fee-for-Service sales (1) 186 47 Gross VOI sales
$ 1,491 $ 967(1) Represents total sales of VOIs through our Fee-for-Service programs where inventory is sold through our sales and marketing channels for a commission. Fee-for-Service commission revenues were $101 millionand $22 millionfor the years ended December 31, 2021and 2020. These commissions are reported within Service and membership fees on the Consolidated Statements of Income/(Loss). The closures of our resorts and suspension of our sales and marketing operations in response to COVID-19 in 2020 resulted in lower tours which negatively impacted gross VOI sales at our Vacation Ownership segment. In our Travel and Membership segment, affiliate resort closures and regional travel restrictions contributed to decreased bookings and increased cancellations, which resulted in lower transactions and revenue per transaction during 2020. In 2021, we experienced significant improvements in VOI sales, tours, VPG, the number of Travel and Membership transactions, and revenue per transaction; however, not all product and service lines have yet returned to pre-pandemic levels. We expect the impact of COVID-19 on our operating statistics to continue into 2022; however we do not expect to incur the same level of COVID-19 impact on our revenues or the level of COVID-19 expenses that we did in 2020. 39
Table of Contents RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Our consolidated results for the years ended
Favorable/ 2021 2020 (Unfavorable) Net revenues
$ 3,134 $ 2,160$ 974 Expenses 2,516 2,265 (251) Operating income/(loss) 618 (105) 723 Interest expense 198 192 (6) Interest (income) (3) (7) (4) Other (income), net (6) (14) (8) Income/(loss) before income taxes 429 (276) 705 Provision/(benefit) for income taxes 116 (23) (139) Net income/(loss) from continuing operations 313 (253) 566
Loss on disposal of discontinued business, net of income
(5) (2) (3) Net income/(loss) attributable to
Travel + Leisure Co.shareholders $ 308 $ (255)$ 563 During 2020 we evaluated the potential impact of COVID-19 on our owners' ability to repay their contract receivable and as a result of current and anticipated unemployment rates at that time, we recorded a $205 millionCOVID-19 related provision, which negatively impacted revenues, and a corresponding $48 millionbenefit to Cost of vacation ownership interests, representing estimated recoveries related to this provision. These adjustments negatively impacted prior year Adjusted EBITDA by $157 million. During 2021 we analyzed the adequacy of the COVID-19 related allowance consistent with past methodology, resulting in a $91 millionrelease, which positively impacted revenues, and a corresponding $33 millionincrease in Cost of vacation ownership interests, representing the associated reduction in estimated recoveries. The net positive impact of the COVID-19 related allowance release on Adjusted EBITDA was $58 millionfor the year ended December 31, 2021.
Net revenues increased
increase was favorably impacted by foreign currency of
Excluding the impacts of foreign currency and the COVID-19 related provision
adjustments discussed above, the increase in net revenues was primarily the
•$475 million of increased revenues at our Vacation Ownership segment primarily due to an increase in gross VOI sales, higher property management and commission revenues as a result of the ongoing recovery of our operations from the impact of COVID-19; partially offset by a decrease in consumer financing revenues due to a lower average portfolio balance; and •$196 million increased revenues at our Travel and Membership segment driven by higher transaction revenues as we continue to recover from the impacts of COVID-19, partially offset by a decrease in subscription revenues driven by lower new owner sales in the timeshare industry. Expenses increased
$251 millionduring 2021 compared with 2020. This increase was unfavorably impacted by foreign currency of $8 million(0.4%). Excluding the impacts of foreign currency, and the Cost of vacation ownership interest related to the COVID-19 provision adjustments discussed above the increase in expenses was the result of: •$97 million increase in cost of sales and other operating costs in support of higher Travel and Membership revenues; •$73 million increase in the cost of VOIs sold primarily due to higher gross VOI sales; •$66 million increase in property management expenses due to higher management fees and reimbursable expenses; •$52 million increase in commission expense as a result of higher Fee-for-Service VOI sales; •$51 million increase in sales and commission expenses at the Vacation Ownership segment primarily due to higher gross VOI sales; •$36 million increase in general and administrative expenses primarily due to higher employee-related costs; •$34 million increase in marketing costs in support of increased revenue; and •$16 million increase in maintenance fees on unsold inventory. 40
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These increases were partially offset by:
•$230 million decrease in COVID-19 related costs including employee compensation related costs (
$84 million); impairments ( $62 million); the write-down of exchange inventory ( $48 million) and restructuring charges ( $37 million); and •$20 million decrease in consumer financing interest expense primarily due to a lower average non-recourse debt balance. Other income, net of other expense decreased $8 millionduring 2021 compared with 2020, primarily due to lower business interruption recoveries in 2021 and value added tax provision releases; partially offset by an unrealized gain from our equity stake in Vacasa, LLC("Vacasa") in 2021 and an unfavorable tax settlement in 2020.
Interest expense increased
due to a higher average outstanding balance in 2021.
Our effective tax rates were 27.0% and 8.3% for the years ended
December 31, 2021and 2020. Our effective tax rate in 2020 was significantly impacted by COVID-19, leading to a mix of earnings in higher tax rate jurisdictions and losses in lower tax rate jurisdictions that reduced our overall effective tax rate. Loss on disposal of discontinued business, net of income taxes was $5 millionduring 2021 resulting from entering into a settlement agreement for post-closing adjustment claims related to the sale of the European vacation rentals business, contingent upon regulatory approval; and $2 millionduring 2020 resulting from a tax audit related to the European vacation rentals business. These losses were net of Wyndham Hotels'one-third share.
As a result of these items, Net income attributable to
Table of Contents Following is a discussion of the 2021 results of each of our segments compared to 2020 (in millions): Year Ended December 31, Net revenues 2021 2020 Vacation Ownership
$ 2,403 $ 1,625Travel and Membership 752 552 Total reportable segments 3,155 2,177 Corporate and other (a) (21) (17) Total Company $ 3,134 $ 2,160Year Ended December 31, Reconciliation of Net income to Adjusted EBITDA 2021 2020
Net income/(loss) attributable to
Loss on disposal of discontinued business, net of income taxes 5 2 Provision/(benefit) for income taxes 116 (23) Depreciation and amortization 124 126 Interest expense 198 192 Interest (income) (3) (7) Stock-based compensation 32 20 Legacy items 4 4 COVID-19 related costs (b) 3 56 Exchange inventory write-off - 48 Restructuring (1) 39 Unrealized gain on equity investment (c) (3) - Asset impairments/(recovery) (d) (5) 57 Adjusted EBITDA
$ 778 $ 259Year Ended December 31, Adjusted EBITDA 2021 2020 Vacation Ownership $ 558 $ 121Travel and Membership 282 191 Total reportable segments 840 312 Corporate and other (a) (62) (53) Total Company$ 778 $ 259(a)Includes the elimination of transactions between segments. (b)Reflects severance and other employee costs associated with layoffs due to the COVID-19 workforce reduction offset in part by employee retention credits received in connection with the U.S.Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security ("CARES") Act, American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, and similar international programs for wages paid to certain employees despite having operations suspended. This amount does not include costs associated with idle pay. (c)Represents the unrealized gain associated with Vacasa equity acquired as part of the consideration for the sale of North Americavacation rentals. The total amount of unrealized gain on this investment was $9 millionfor the year ended December 31, 2021, of which $6 millionis included in Asset impairments/(recovery) on the Consolidated Statements of Income/(Loss) to offset the 2020 impairment recognized on this investment. (d)Includes $5 millionof bad debt expense related to a note receivable for the year ended December 31, 2020, included in Operating expenses on the Consolidated Statements of Income/(Loss). 42
Table of Contents Vacation Ownership Net revenues increased
$778 millionand Adjusted EBITDA increased $437 millionduring 2021 compared with 2020. The net revenue increase was favorably impacted by foreign currency of $7 million(0.4%) and the Adjusted EBITDA increase was favorably impacted by foreign currency of $2 million(1.7%).
The net revenue increase excluding the impact of foreign currency was primarily
•$382 million increase in gross VOI sales, net of Fee-for-Service sales, due to the ongoing recovery of our operations from the impact of COVID-19; •$286 million decrease in our provision for loan losses primarily due to the COVID-19 related allowance adjustments (
$205 millionprovision recorded during 2020 and $91 millionrelease during 2021); •$85 million increase in property management revenues primarily due to higher management fees and reimbursable revenues; and •$78 million increase in commission revenues as a result of higher Fee-for-Service VOI sales.
These increases were partially offset by a
financing revenues primarily due to a lower average portfolio balance.
In addition to the drivers above, Adjusted EBITDA excluding the impact of
foreign currency was further impacted by:
•$154 million increase in the cost of VOIs sold primarily due to higher gross VOI sales, the absence of a
$48 millionbenefit recorded in 2020 representing estimated recoveries related to the COVID-19 related provision, and a $33 millionreduction in estimated recoveries related to the release of our COVID-19 related allowance during 2021; •$66 million increase in property management expenses primarily due to higher management fees and reimbursable expenses; •$52 million increase in commission expense as a result of higher Fee-for-Service VOI sales; •$51 million increase in sales and commission expenses due to higher gross VOI sales; •$22 million increase in marketing costs in support of increased revenue; •$17 million increase in general and administrative expenses primarily due to higher employee-related costs; and •$16 million increase in maintenance fees on unsold inventory.
These increased expenses were partially offset by:
•$30 million decrease in COVID-19 related costs associated with workforce reductions; and •$20 million decrease in consumer financing interest expense primarily due to a lower average non-recourse debt balance.
Travel and Membership
Net revenues increased
$200 millionand Adjusted EBITDA increased $91 millionduring 2021 compared with 2020. The net revenue increase was favorably impacted by foreign currency of $4 million(0.7%) and the Adjusted EBITDA increase was favorably impacted by foreign currency of $1 million(0.5%).
Increases in net revenues excluding the impact of foreign currency were
primarily driven by:
•$202 million increase in transaction revenue driven by a 61% increase in transactions and a 7% increase in revenue per transaction; partially offset by •$6 million decrease in subscription revenue due to a 1% decrease in average number of exchange members driven by lower new owner sales in the timeshare industry. In addition to the revenue changes explained above, Adjusted EBITDA excluding the impact of foreign currency was further impacted by the following operational costs in support of increased revenues: •$86 million increase in cost of sales; •$12 million increase in marketing expense; and •$11 million increase in operational expenses.
These increased expenses were partially offset by a
general and administrative expenses resulting from staff reductions and cost
savings initiatives implemented after the first quarter of 2020.
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Corporate and other Adjusted EBITDA decreased
compared with 2020 and was not materially impacted by foreign currency. The
decrease in Adjusted EBITDA was primarily due to higher employee-related costs.
For a comparative review of our consolidated results of operations and the
results of operations of our reportable segments for the fiscal years ended
Form 10-K filed with the
We recognized a loss on disposal of discontinued business, net of income taxes of
$5 millionduring 2021 resulting from entering into a settlement agreement regarding post-closing adjustment claims related to the sale of the European vacation rentals business, contingent upon regulatory approval. See Note 29-Transactions with Former Parent and Former Subsidiaries to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. During 2020, we recognized a $2 millionloss on disposal of discontinued business, net of income taxes resulting from a tax audit related to the European vacation rentals business. During 2019, we recognized an additional $18 milliongain on the sale of our European vacation rentals business, related to $12 millionof tax benefits associated with additional foreign tax credit utilization and lower than anticipated state income taxes, as well as $6 millionin returned escrow deposits associated with expired guarantees.
SEPARATION AND TRANSACTION COSTS
During 2019, we incurred
$45 millionof expenses in connection with the spin-off of our hotel business completed on May 31, 2018, which are reflected within continuing operations. These separation costs were related to stock compensation, severance and other employee costs, as well as impairment charges as a result of abandoning portions of our administrative offices in New Jersey. This decision was part of our continued focus on rationalizing existing facilities in order to reduce our corporate footprint. These expenses also include additional impairment charges related to the early termination of an operating lease in Chicago, Illinois, partially offset by an indemnification receivable from Wyndham Hotels. Refer to Note 13-Leases to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional detail regarding these impairments.
During 2020, we recorded
$37 millionof charges related to restructuring initiatives, $36 millionof which were COVID-19 related. Due to the impact of COVID-19, we decided in the second quarter of 2020 to abandon the remaining portion of our administrative offices in New Jersey. We were also notified in the second quarter of 2020 that Wyndham Hotelsexercised its early termination rights under the sublease agreement. As a result, we recorded $22 millionof restructuring charges associated with non-lease components of the office space and $24 millionof impairment charges associated with the write-off of right-of-use assets and furniture, fixtures and equipment at our Travel and Membership segment. We also recognized $12 millionof lease-related charges due to the renegotiation of an agreement and $2 millionof facility-related restructuring charges associated with closed sales centers at our Vacation Ownership segment. We additionally recognized $1 millionin employee-related expenses associated with the consolidation of a shared service center within our Travel and Membership segment. We reduced the 2020 restructuring liability by $5 millionand $12 millionof cash payments during 2021 and 2020. During 2021 we also reversed $1 millionof expense related to the reimbursement of prepaid licensing fees that were previously written-off, and increased the liability by $3 millionof cash reimbursements at our Vacation Ownership segment. The remaining 2020 restructuring liability of $22 millionis expected to be paid by the end of 2029. During 2019, we recorded $5 millionof charges related to restructuring initiatives, most of which are personnel-related resulting from a reduction of approximately 100 employees. This action was primarily focused on enhancing organizational efficiency and rationalizing operations. The charges consisted of (i) $2 millionat our Vacation Ownership segment, (ii) $2 millionat our Travel and Membership segment, and (iii) $1 millionat our corporate operations. During 2020, we incurred an additional $1 millionof restructuring expenses at both our Travel and Membership segment and our corporate operations. We reduced the restructuring liability by less than $1 million, $5 million, and $1 millionof cash payments during 2021, 2020, and 2019. As of December 31, 2021the 2019 restructuring liability has been paid off. 44
Table of Contents FINANCIAL CONDITION
December 31, December 31, (In millions) 2021 2020 Change Total assets
$ 6,588 $ 7,613 $ (1,025)Total liabilities 7,382 8,581 (1,199) Total deficit (794) (968) 174
Total assets decreased
•$827 million decrease in Cash and cash equivalents primarily due to net debt repayments, including the revolving credit facility, notes, and non-recourse debt; dividend payments; property and equipment additions; payments associated with the acquisition of the Travel + Leisure brand; and treasury share repurchases; partially offset by net cash provided by operating activities. •$173 million decrease in Vacation ownership contract receivables, net, driven by principal collections and allowance for loan losses, partially offset by net VOI originations; •$131 million decrease in Inventory driven by VOI sales and lower estimated VOI recoveries, partially offset by purchases; and •$48 million decrease in Other assets primarily due to the receipt of employee retention credits earned in connection with the CARES Act in 2020, as well as decreases in tax receivables, right-of-use assets, and deferred costs, partially offset by an increase in marketable securities.
These decreases were partially offset by an
intangibles, net primarily related to the acquisition of the Travel + Leisure
brand from Meredith; a
Total liabilities decreased
•$65 million decrease in Deferred income due to increased usage of deferred VOI trial packages, VOI incentives, and subscription revenue as a result of owners and members returning to vacation as COVID-19 travel restrictions lifted; •$300 million decrease in Non-recourse vacation ownership debt primarily due to net repayments; •$805 million decrease in Debt due to net repayments of the revolving credit facility, early payoff of the
$650 millionnotes due March 2022, and the repayment of the $250 millionnotes due March 2021; partially offset by the issuance of $650 millionnotes due December 2029; and •$39 million decrease in Deferred income taxes due to installment sales partially offset by the allowance for bad debt. Total deficit decreased $174 millionfrom December 31, 2020to December 31, 2021, due to $308 millionof Net income attributable to Travel + Leisure Co.shareholders; and $32 milliondue to changes in stock based compensation; partially offset by $111 millionof dividends; $32 millionof unfavorable currency translation adjustments driven by fluctuations in the exchange rates, primarily of the Australian dollar, the Danish krone, and the Euro; and $26 millionof share repurchases.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
We believe that we have sufficient liquidity to meet our ongoing cash needs for the next year and beyond, including capital expenditures, operational and/or strategic opportunities, and expenditures for human capital, intellectual property, contractual obligations, off-balance sheet arrangements, and other such requirements. Our net cash from operations and cash and cash equivalents are key sources of liquidity to meet our ongoing cash needs. In addition to these sources, we also rely on access to our revolving credit facilities, bank conduit facilities, and continued access to debt markets. Our discussion below highlights these sources of liquidity and how they have been utilized to support our cash needs.
We generally utilize our revolving credit facility to finance our short-term to medium-term business operations, as needed. As a precautionary measure at the onset of the global pandemic, in
March 2020we fully drew down our $1.0 billionrevolving credit facility. Based on the ongoing recovery of our business to date, our strong liquidity position and ability to access secured debt capital markets, we fully repaid the remaining outstanding revolver balance as of December 31, 2021, and had $998 millionof available capacity on our revolving credit facility, net of letters of credit. On July 15, 2020, we entered into the First Amendment governing our revolving credit facility and term loan B. The First Amendment established a Relief Period with respect to our secured revolving credit facility, which commenced on July 15, 45
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2020, and was scheduled to end on
April 1, 2022. Among other changes, the First Amendment added a new minimum liquidity covenant, tested quarterly until the end of the Relief Period, of (i) $250 millionplus (ii) 50% of the aggregate amount of dividends paid after the effective date of the First Amendment and on or prior to the last day of the relevant fiscal quarter. On October 22, 2021, we entered into the Second Amendment governing our revolving credit facility and term loan B which resulted in the termination of this Relief Period and extended the commitment period for the revolving credit facility from May 2023to October 2026. The revolving credit facility and term loan B are subject to covenants including the maintenance of specific financial ratios as defined in the credit agreement. The financial ratio covenants consist of a minimum interest coverage ratio and a maximum first lien leverage ratio. The interest coverage ratio is calculated by dividing consolidated EBITDA (as defined in the credit agreement) by consolidated interest expense (as defined in the credit agreement), both as measured on a trailing 12-month basis preceding the measurement date. The first lien leverage ratio is calculated by dividing consolidated first lien debt (as defined in the credit agreement) as of the measurement date by consolidated EBITDA (as defined in the credit agreement) as measured on a trailing 12-month basis preceding the measurement date. The Second Amendment stipulates a first lien leverage ratio financial covenant not to exceed 4.75 to 1.0 commencing with the December 31, 2021period through June 30, 2022, after which time it will return to 4.25 to 1.0, the level in existence prior to the effective date of the First Amendment. It also reestablished the interest coverage ratio (as defined in the credit agreement) of no less than 2.5 to 1.0, the level existing prior to the effective date of the First Amendment. Additionally, the Second Amendment reestablished the annual interest rate in existence prior to the effective date of the First Amendment which is equal to, at our option, either a base rate plus a margin ranging from 0.75% to 1.25% or the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") plus a margin ranging from 1.75% to 2.25%, in either case based upon our first lien leverage ratio. The Second Amendment also includes customary LIBOR replacement language providing for alternative interest rate option upon the cessation of LIBOR publication. As of December 31, 2021, our first lien leverage ratio was 3.99 to 1.0 and our interest coverage ratio was 4.00 to 1.0. These ratios do not include interest expense or indebtedness related to any qualified securitization financing (as defined in the credit agreement). As of December 31, 2021, we were in compliance with the financial covenants described above.
Secured Notes and Term Loan B
We generally utilize borrowing under our secured notes to meet our long-term financing needs. During 2020 we issued
$650 millionsenior secured notes due 2026 with an interest rate of 6.625% and during 2021, we issued $650 millionof senior secured notes due 2029 with an interest rate of 4.50%. These transactions positively impacted our liquidity and reinforce our expectation that we will maintain adequate liquidity for the next year and beyond. During 2021, we repaid our $250 million5.625% secured notes due March 2021and our $650 million4.25% secured notes due March 2022. As of December 31, 2021, we had $3.37 billionoutstanding of secured notes and Term Loan B, with maturities ranging from 2023 to 2030.
Non-recourse Vacation Ownership Debt
Our vacation ownership business finances certain of its VOCRs through (i) asset-backed conduit facilities and (ii) term asset-backed securitizations, all of which are non-recourse to us with respect to principal and interest. For the securitizations, we pool qualifying VOCRs and sell them to bankruptcy-remote entities, all of which are consolidated into the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets as of
December 31, 2021. We plan to continue using these sources to finance certain VOCRs. We believe that our USD bank conduit facility with a term through October 2022, which we expect to extend prior to its expiration, and our AUD/NZD bank conduit facility, with a term through April 2023, amounting to a combined capacity of $1.02 billion( $698 millionavailable as of December 31, 2021), along with our ability to issue term asset-backed securities, provide sufficient liquidity to finance the sale of VOIs beyond the next year. We closed on securitization financings of $850 millionin 2021 and $900 millionin 2020. These transactions positively impacted our liquidity and reinforce our expectation that we will maintain adequate liquidity for the next year and beyond. Our liquidity position may be negatively affected by unfavorable conditions in the capital markets in which we operate or if our VOCR portfolios do not meet specified portfolio credit parameters. Our liquidity, as it relates to our VOCR securitization program, could be adversely affected if we were to fail to renew or replace our conduit facilities on their expiration dates, or if a particular receivables pool were to fail to meet certain ratios, which could occur in certain instances if the default rates or other credit metrics of the underlying VOCRs deteriorate. Our ability to sell securities backed by our VOCRs depends on the continued ability and willingness of capital market participants to invest in such securities. 46
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Each of our non-recourse, securitized term notes, and the bank conduit facilities contain various triggers relating to the performance of the applicable loan pools. If the VOCR pool that collateralizes one of our securitization notes fails to perform within the parameters established by the contractual triggers (such as higher default or delinquency rates), there are provisions pursuant to which the cash flows for that pool will be maintained in the securitization as extra collateral for the note holders or applied to accelerate the repayment of outstanding principal to the note holders. As of
December 31, 2021, all of our securitized loan pools were in compliance with applicable contractual triggers. We may, from time to time, depending on market conditions and other factors, repurchase our outstanding indebtedness, whether or not such indebtedness trades above or below its face amount, for cash and/or in exchange for other securities or other consideration, in each case in open market purchases and/or privately negotiated transactions.
For additional details regarding our credit facilities, term loan B, and
non-recourse debt see Note 16-Debt to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Material Cash Requirements
The following table summarizes material future contractual obligations of our continuing operations (in millions). We plan to fund these obligations along with our other cash requirements with net cash from operations, cash and cash equivalents as well as access to our revolving credit facilities, bank conduit facilities, and continued access to debt markets. 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Thereafter Total Debt
$ 7 $ 407 $ 303 $ 625 $ 643 $ 1,394 $ 3,379Non-recourse debt (a) 424 234 201 201 214 660 1,934 Interest on debt (b) 230 205 182 163 114 151 1,045 Purchase commitments (c) 208 117 105 132 93 171 826 Operating leases 32 30 28 24 14 35 163 Inventory sold subject to conditional repurchase (d) 35 30 - - - - 65 Total (e) $ 936 $ 1,023 $ 819 $ 1,145 $ 1,078 $ 2,411 $ 7,412(a)Represents debt that is securitized through bankruptcy-remote special purpose entities the creditors of which have no recourse to us for principal and interest. (b)Includes interest on both debt and non-recourse debt; estimated using the stated interest rates. (c)Includes (i) $656 million for marketing related activities, (ii) $61 millionrelating to the development of vacation ownership properties, and (iii) $45 millionfor information technology activities. (d)Represents obligations to repurchase completed vacation ownership properties from third-party developers (see Note 11-Inventory to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further detail) of which $13 millionis included within Accrued expenses and other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. (e)Excludes a $38 millionliability for unrecognized tax benefits since it is not reasonably estimable to determine the periods in which such liability would be settled with the respective tax authorities. In addition to the amounts shown in the table above and in connection with our separation from Cendant, we entered into certain guarantee commitments with Cendant (pursuant to our assumption of certain liabilities and our obligation to indemnify Cendant, Realogy, and Travelport for such liabilities) and guarantee commitments related to deferred compensation arrangements with Cendant and Realogy. We also entered into certain guarantee commitments related to the sale of our European vacation rentals business. For information on matters related to our former parent and subsidiaries see Note 29-Transactions with Former Parent and Former Subsidiaries to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
In addition to the key contractual obligation and separation related commitments
mentioned above, we have the following other commercial commitments and
off-balance sheet arrangements:
We enter into agreements that contain standard guarantees and indemnities whereby we indemnify another party for specified breaches of, or third-party claims relating to, an underlying agreement. Such underlying agreements are typically entered into by one of our subsidiaries. The various underlying agreements generally govern purchases, sales or outsourcing of products or services, leases of real estate, licensing of software and/or development of vacation ownership properties, access to credit facilities, derivatives, and issuances of debt securities. We also provide corporate guarantees for our operating business units relating to merchant credit-card processing for prepaid customer stays and other deposits. While a majority of these guarantees 47
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and indemnifications extend only for the duration of the underlying agreement, some survive the expiration of the agreement. We are not able to estimate the maximum potential amount of future payments to be made under these guarantees and indemnifications as the triggering events are not predictable. In certain cases we maintain insurance coverage that may mitigate any potential payments. Our vacation ownership business provides guarantees to certain owners' associations for funds required to operate and maintain vacation ownership properties in excess of assessments collected from owners of the VOIs. We may be required to fund such a shortfall as a result of unsold company-owned VOIs or failure by owners to pay such assessments. In addition, from time to time, we may agree to reimburse certain owner associations up to 80% of their uncollected assessments. These guarantees extend for the duration of the underlying subsidy or similar agreement (which generally approximate one year and are renewable at our discretion on an annual basis). The maximum potential future payments that we could be required to make under these guarantees was
$518 millionas of December 31, 2021. We would only be required to pay this maximum amount if none of the assessed owners paid their assessments. Any assessments collected from the owners of the VOIs would reduce the maximum potential amount of future payments to be made by us. Additionally, should we be required to fund the deficit through the payment of any owners' assessments under these guarantees, we would be permitted to use that property to engage in revenue-producing activities such as rentals. During 2021, 2020, and 2019, we made payments related to these guarantees of $13 million, $13 million, and $11 million. As of December 31, 2021and 2020, we maintained a liability in connection with these guarantees of $32 millionand $26 millionincluded within Accrued expenses and other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. As part of the Fee-for-Service program, we may guarantee to reimburse the developer or to purchase inventory from the developer, for a percentage of the original sale price if certain future conditions exist. As of December 31, 2021, the maximum potential future payments that we may be required to make under these guarantees is $41 million. As of December 31, 2021and 2020, we had no recognized liabilities in connection with these guarantees. We generally utilize letters of credit to support the securitization of VOCR fundings, certain insurance policies, and development activities in our vacation ownership business. As of December 31, 2021, we had $36 millionof irrevocable standby letters of credit outstanding, of which $2 millionwere under our revolving credit facilities. As of December 31, 2020, we had $127 millionof irrevocable standby letters of credit outstanding, of which $96 millionwere under our revolving credit facilities. Such letters of credit issued during 2020 included a $48 millionletter of credit for guarantees related to the sale of the European vacation rentals business in which Wyndham Hotelsand Travel + Leisure Co.were required to maintain certain credit ratings. This letter of credit was released during 2021, see Note 29-Transactions with Former Parent and Former Subsidiaries to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional details. We primarily utilize surety bonds in our vacation ownership business for sales and development transactions in order to meet regulatory requirements of certain states. In the ordinary course of our business, we have assembled commitments from 12 surety providers in the amount of $2.3 billion, of which we had $292 millionoutstanding as of December 31, 2021. The availability, terms and conditions, and pricing of bonding capacity are dependent on, among other things, continued financial strength and stability of the insurance company affiliates providing the bonding capacity, general availability of such capacity, and our corporate credit rating. If the bonding capacity is unavailable or, alternatively, the terms and conditions and pricing of the bonding capacity are unacceptable to us, our vacation ownership business could be negatively impacted. We have Company sponsored severance plans in place for certain employees in the event of involuntary terminations, other than for cause. As of December 31, 2021, our maximum obligation under these severance plans was $152 million. Refer to the Proxy Statement for our 2022 Annual Meeting of Shareholders under the captions "Compensation of Directors," "Executive Compensation" and "Committees of the Board" for additional details regarding executive compensation. Our secured debt is rated Ba3 with a "negative outlook" by Moody's InvestorsService, BB- with a "stable outlook" by Standard & Poor's Rating Services, and BB+ with a "negative outlook" by Fitch Rating Agency. A security rating is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities and is subject to revision or withdrawal by the assigning rating organization. Reference in this report to any such credit rating is intended for the limited purpose of discussing or referring to aspects of our liquidity and of our costs of funds. Any reference to a credit rating is not intended to be any guarantee or assurance of, nor should there be any undue reliance upon, any credit rating or change in credit rating, nor is any such reference intended as any inference concerning future performance, future liquidity or any future credit rating. For information regarding the impact of changes to our credit rating and the credit rating of Wyndham Hotels, see Note 29-Transactions with Former Parent and Former Subsidiaries-Matters Related to the European Vacation Rentals Business to the Consolidated Financial Statements. 48
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We are currently evaluating the impact of the transition from LIBOR as an interest rate benchmark to other potential alternative reference rates, including but not limited to the Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR"). Currently, we have debt and derivative instruments in place that reference LIBOR-based rates. Although certain of these LIBOR based obligations provide for alternative methods of calculating the related interest rate payable (including transition to an alternative benchmark rate) if LIBOR is not reported, uncertainty as to the extent and manner of future changes may result in interest rates and/or payments that are higher than, lower than, or that do not otherwise correlate over time with the interest rates and/or payments that would have been made on our obligations if LIBOR was available in its current form. The transition from LIBOR based benchmark rates is expected to begin
January 1, 2022and be completed when USD LIBOR rates are phased out by June 30, 2023. Management will continue to actively assess the related opportunities and risks involved in this transition.
We adopted appropriate LIBOR replacement rate transition language into the
agreements for the renewal of our USD bank conduit facility in 2020 and the
renewal of the credit agreement governing the revolving credit facility and term
loan B which closed on
largest exposure to LIBOR.
The following table summarizes the changes in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash between 2021 and 2020 (in millions). For a comparative review of the fiscal years ended
December 31, 2020and 2019, refer to the Cash Flows section in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SECon February 24, 2021. Year Ended December 31, Cash provided by/(used in) 2021 2020 Change Operating activities: $ 568 $ 374 $ 194Investing activities: Continuing operations (93) (60) (33) Discontinued operations - (5) 5 Financing activities: (1,288) 502 (1,790) Effects of changes in exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents (7) 4 (11) Net change in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash $ (820) $ 815 $ (1,635)
Net cash provided by operating activities was
$568 millionfor the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $374 millionin the prior year. This $194 millionincrease in 2021 was primarily driven by a $563 millionincrease in net income from continuing operations; partially offset by a $281 milliondecrease in non-cash add-back items, mainly lower provision for loan losses, and a $91 millionincrease in cash utilized for working capital.
Net cash used in investing activities from continuing operations was
$93 millionfor the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $60 millionin the prior year. This increase in cash used was primarily driven by $37 millionof cash payments for the acquisition of the Travel + Leisure brand in 2021; partially offset by $12 millionlower property and equipment additions in 2021. Net cash used in investing activities from discontinued operations was $5 millionfor the year ended December 31, 2020, which was related to the sale of the European vacation rentals business.
Net cash used in financing activities was
$1.29 billionfor the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to net cash provided of $502 millionin the prior year. The variance was primarily due to higher net repayments in 2021 due to the early payoff of our $650 millionnotes due March 2022, the net payoff of our secured revolving credit facility of $547 million, and payoff of our $250 millionnotes due March 2021, partially offset by the issuance of $650 millionnotes due December 2029; compared to prior year proceeds from the issuance of $650 millionnotes and $547 millionof net proceeds from borrowings under our secured revolving credit facility. The variance was also due to $103 millionof decreased share repurchase activity in 2021 compared to 2020. 49
Table of Contents Capital Deployment We focus on deploying capital for the highest possible returns. Ultimately, our business objective is to grow our business while optimizing cash flow and Adjusted EBITDA. We intend to continue to invest in select capital and technological improvements across our business. We may also seek to strategically grow the business through merger and acquisition activities. As part of our merger and acquisition strategy, we have made, and expect to continue to make, acquisition proposals and enter into non-binding letters of intent, allowing us to conduct due diligence on a confidential basis. A potential transaction contemplated by a letter of intent may never reach the point where we enter into a definitive agreement, nor can we predict the timing of such a potential transaction. Finally, we intend to continue to return value to shareholders through the repurchase of common stock and payment of dividends. All future declarations of quarterly cash dividends are subject to final approval by the Board. On
October 22, 2021, we renewed the credit agreement governing our revolving credit facility and term loan B. The renewal eliminated the Relief Period restrictions on share repurchases, among other changes, and we resumed share repurchases during the fourth quarter of 2021. During 2021, we spent $165 millionon vacation ownership development projects (inventory). We believe that our vacation ownership business currently has adequate finished inventory to support vacation ownership sales for several years. The average inventory spend on vacation ownership development projects for the five-year period from 2022 through 2026 is expected to be between $140 millionand $170 millionannually. After factoring in the anticipated additional average annual spending, we expect to have adequate inventory to support vacation ownership sales through at least the next four to five years.
During 2021, we invested
information technology and sales center improvement projects. During 2022, we
In connection with our focus on optimizing cash flow, we are continuing our asset-light efforts in vacation ownership by seeking opportunities with financial partners whereby they make strategic investments to develop assets on our behalf. We refer to this as Just-in-Time. The partner may invest in new ground-up development projects or purchase from us, for cash, existing in-process inventory which currently resides on our balance sheet. The partner will complete the development of the project and we may purchase finished inventory at a future date as needed or as obligated under the agreement. We expect that the majority of the expenditures that will be required to pursue our capital spending programs, strategic investments and vacation ownership development projects will be financed with cash flow generated through operations and cash and cash equivalents. We expect that additional expenditures will be financed with general secured corporate borrowings, including through the use of available capacity under our revolving credit facility.
Share Repurchase Program
August 20, 2007, our Board authorized a share repurchase program that enables us to purchase our common stock. The Board has since increased the capacity of the program eight times, most recently in October 2017by $1.0 billion, bringing the total authorization under the current program to $6.0 billion. Proceeds received from stock option exercises increased our repurchase capacity by $81 millionsince the inception of this program. We had $328 millionof remaining availability in our program as of December 31, 2021. Under our current share repurchase program, we repurchased 0.5 million shares at an average price of $52.94for a cost of $26 millionduring the year ended December 31, 2021. The amount and timing of specific repurchases are subject to market conditions, applicable legal requirements and other factors, including capital allocation priorities. Repurchases may be conducted in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. We suspended share repurchase activity in March 2020due to uncertainty associated with COVID-19. On July 15, 2020, we entered into the First Amendment to the credit agreement governing our revolving credit facility and term loan B. Among other changes, the First Amendment placed us into a Relief Period from July 15, 2020through April 1, 2022that prohibited the use of cash for share repurchases during this period. On October 22, 2021, we entered into the Second Amendment which renewed the credit agreement governing our revolving credit facility and term loan B. This Second Amendment eliminated the Relief Period restrictions on share repurchases, among other changes. In connection with this Second Amendment we resumed share repurchases during the fourth quarter of 2021.
During 2021, we paid cash dividends of
$0.30per share for the first, second, and third quarters, and $0.35per share for the fourth quarter. During 2020, we paid cash dividends of $0.50per share for the first and second quarters, and $0.30per share for the third and fourth quarters. We paid cash dividends of $0.45per share for all four quarters of 2019. The aggregate of dividends paid to shareholders for 2021, 2020, and 2019, were $109 million, $138 million, and $166 million. 50
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July 15, 2020, among other changes, established a Relief Period which added a new minimum liquidity covenant, tested quarterly until the end of the Relief Period, of (i) $250 millionplus (ii) 50% of the aggregate amount of dividends paid after the effective date of the First Amendment and on or prior to the last day of the relevant fiscal quarter. Additionally, the First Amendment limited the payout of dividends during the Relief Period to not exceed $0.50per share, the rate in effect prior to the First Amendment. The Second Amendment, which was entered into on October 22, 2021, renewed the credit agreement governing our revolving credit facility and term loan B and terminated the Relief Period which, among other changes, eliminated the restrictions on dividends and the Relief Period minimum liquidity covenant established by the First Amendment. Although our quarterly dividend was previously reduced due to the impacts of COVID-19, we were able to increase our dividend in the fourth quarter of 2021 and our long-term expectation is to grow our dividend at the rate of growth of our earnings at a minimum. The declaration and payment of future dividends to holders of our common stock are at the discretion of our Board and depend upon many factors, including our financial condition, earnings, capital requirements of our business, covenants associated with certain debt obligations, legal requirements, regulatory constraints, industry practice and other factors that our Board deems relevant. There is no assurance that a payment of a dividend or a dividend at current levels will occur in the future.
We assert that substantially all undistributed foreign earnings will be reinvested indefinitely as of
December 31, 2021. In the event we determine not to continue to assert that all or part of our undistributed foreign earnings are permanently reinvested, such a determination in the future could result in the accrual and payment of additional foreign withholding taxes, as well as U.S.taxes on currency transaction gains and losses, the determination of which is not practicable. SEASONALITY We experience seasonal fluctuations in our net revenues and net income from sales of VOIs and vacation exchange fees. Revenues from sales of VOIs are generally higher in the third quarter than in other quarters due to increased leisure travel. Revenues from vacation exchange fees are generally highest in the first quarter, which is generally when members of our vacation exchange business book their vacations for the year. Our seasonality has been and could continue to be impacted by COVID-19.
The seasonality of our business may cause fluctuations in our quarterly
operating results. As we expand into new markets and geographical locations, we
may experience increased or different seasonality dynamics that create
fluctuations in operating results different from the fluctuations we have
experienced in the past.
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
From time to time, we are involved in claims, legal and regulatory proceedings, and governmental inquiries related to our business, none of which, in the opinion of management, is expected to have a material effect on our results of operations or financial condition. See Note 20-Commitments and Contingencies to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a description of claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of our business along with our guarantees and indemnifications and Note 29-Transactions with Former Parent and Former Subsidiaries to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a description of our obligations regarding Cendant contingent litigation, matters related to
Wyndham Hotels, matters related to the European vacation rentals business, and matters related to the North American vacation rentals business.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
In presenting our financial statements in conformity with GAAP, we are required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported therein. Several of the estimates and assumptions we are required to make relate to matters that are inherently uncertain as they pertain to future events. However, events that are outside of our control cannot be predicted and, as such, they cannot be contemplated in evaluating such estimates and assumptions. If there is a significant unfavorable change to current conditions, it could result in a material impact to our consolidated results of operations, financial position, and liquidity. We believe that the estimates and assumptions we used when preparing our financial statements were the most appropriate at that time. In addition to our significant accounting policies referenced in Note 2-Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to the Consolidated Financial Statements, presented below are the critical accounting estimates that we believe require subjective and complex judgments that could potentially affect reported results. 51
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Vacation Ownership Revenue Recognition and Allowance for Loan Losses. Our sales of VOIs are either cash sales or developer-financed sales. For developer-financed sales, we project our losses for uncollectible accounts over the entire lives of our notes. This estimate of uncollectible consideration reduces the amount of revenue recognized at the time of sale and establishes an allowance for loan loss which reduces the receivable. Our estimates of uncollectible amounts are based on the results of our static pool analysis which tracks defaults for each year's sales over the entire life of those contract receivables. We consider current defaults, past due aging, historical write-offs of contracts and consumer credit scores (FICO scores) in the assessment of a borrower's credit strength, down payment amount and expected loan performance. We also consider whether the historical economic conditions are comparable to current economic conditions. If current or expected future conditions differ from the conditions in effect when the historical experience was generated, we adjust the allowance for loan losses to reflect the expected effects of the current environment on the collectability of our VOCRs. There were no changes to the assumptions used in this model in 2021. In
March 2020, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on our owners' ability to repay their contract receivables, we added an additional model that increased the allowance for loan losses by $225 million, representing 6% of gross VOCRs as of March 31, 2020. This additional model was based upon historical data on the relationship between unemployment rates and net new defaults. The model provided for the full estimated impact of a recession (approximately 15-20 months from the peak of unemployment) based on our historical data from the recession in 2008. Based upon improved performance in our portfolio (lower net new defaults) and improved unemployment rates, we reversed $111 millionof the initial $225 millionprovision recorded in March 2020. After considering write-offs and the allowance for remaining likely defaults associated with loans that were granted payment deferrals, we have no COVID-19 related allowances as of December 31, 2021. The allowance for loan losses is our most significant and complex estimate. Over the past five years, the year-end allowance as a percentage of gross VOCRs has ranged from 18.1% to 19.5% with the exception of 2020 which was 21.8% as a result of the impact of COVID-19. See Note 10-Vacation Ownership Contract Receivables to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional details of changes in the COVID-19 estimates and impacts to the financial statements. Inventory. We use the relative sales value method of costing and relieving our VOI inventory. This method requires us to make estimates subject to significant uncertainty, including future sales prices and volumes as well as credit losses and related inventory recoveries. The impact of any changes in estimates under the relative sales value method is recorded in Cost of vacation ownership interests on the Consolidated Statements of Income/(Loss) in order to retrospectively adjust the margin previously recorded subject to those estimates. There were no changes in these assumptions during 2021. Impairment of Long-Lived Assets. We perform an annual review of our goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets, or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist. This analysis requires significant judgments, including anticipated market conditions, operating expense trends, estimation of future cash flows, which are dependent on internal forecasts, and estimation of long-term rate of growth. The estimates used to calculate the fair value of other indefinite-lived intangible assets change from year to year based on operating results and market conditions. There were no changes in the assumptions used in this analysis in 2021. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value and the other indefinite-lived intangible assets impairment. Business Combinations. A component of our growth strategy has been to acquire and integrate businesses that complement our existing operations. We account for business combinations in accordance with the guidance for business combinations and related literature. Accordingly, we allocate the purchase price of acquired companies to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their estimated fair values at the date of purchase. The difference between the purchase price and the fair value of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. In determining the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination, we use various recognized valuation methods including present value modeling and referenced market values (where available). Further, we make assumptions within certain valuation techniques including discount rates and timing of future cash flows. Valuations are performed by management or independent valuation specialists under management's supervision, where appropriate. We believe that the estimated fair values assigned to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed are based on reasonable assumptions that marketplace participants would use. However, such assumptions are inherently uncertain and actual results could differ from those estimates. Guarantees. In the ordinary course of business, we enter into agreements that contain standard guarantees and indemnities whereby we indemnify another party for specified breaches of, or third-party claims relating to, an underlying agreement. Such underlying agreements are typically entered into by one of our subsidiaries. The various underlying agreements generally govern purchases, sales or outsourcing of products or services, leases of real estate, licensing of software and/or development of 52
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vacation ownership properties, access to credit facilities, derivatives and issuances of debt securities. Also in the ordinary course of business, we provide corporate guarantees for our operating business units relating to merchant credit-card processing for prepaid customer stays and other deposits. While a majority of these guarantees and indemnifications extend only for the duration of the underlying agreement, some survive the expiration of the agreement. We are not able to estimate the maximum potential amount of future payments to be made under these guarantees and indemnifications as the triggering events are not predictable. In certain cases, we maintain insurance coverage that may mitigate any potential payments. Income Taxes. We regularly review our deferred tax assets to assess their potential realization and establish a valuation allowance for portions of such assets that we believe will not be ultimately realized. In performing this review, we make estimates and assumptions regarding projected future taxable income, the expected timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences and the implementation of tax planning strategies. A change in these assumptions may increase or decrease our valuation allowance resulting in an increase or decrease in our effective tax rate, which could materially impact our results of operations. For tax positions we have taken or expect to take in our tax return, we apply a more likely than not threshold, under which we must conclude a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained, assuming that the position will be examined by the appropriate taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information, in order to recognize or continue to recognize the benefit. In determining our provision for income taxes, we use judgment, reflecting our estimates and assumptions, in applying the more likely than not threshold.
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